According to the political economist Karl Polanyii the disconnection of the Market from the Social was accompanied by a “fiction”, a belief that the Self-regulated Market was the answer to all the ills of Society, the Market was thought to generate improvements at the price of social dislocations. Dislocation implies a disruption of a social order destroying and separating entire communities, institutions or groups in order to commodify them, as a result of this, poverty, homelessness, unemployment is generated. Subjectively, Alexander (2010) also suggest that it denotes a lack of psycho social integration, it encompass a condition of great numbers of human beings who have been shorn of their cultures and individuals identities by the globalization of a “free market society” in which the needs of people are subordinated to the imperatives of Markets and the economy. Dislocation afflicts both people who have been physically displaced, such as economic immigrants and refugees, and people who have remained in place while their cultures disintegrated around them. Dislocation occurs during boom times as well as recessions, among rich as well as the poor, among capitalists as well as workers. Dislocated people are prone to depression, intense fears, anxiety, irresponsibility, violence, suicide while addiction is the predominant way of adapting to dislocation.
Intense Fear in Modernity
It has been precisely the feeling of fear that has been intensified in modernity in different contexts of global and local economic conflicts. This imbalance of levels of fear has been spread worldwide generating a feeling of insecurity and lack of trust. For instance, countries such as Syria and Colombia has been experiencing a high level of insecurity due to the ongoing armed conflict. There exists also fears of a possible terrorist attack in the US or in the EU Countries with new arrivals of refugees as well as an intensified tension between Israel and Palestine remains. Political violence in Turkey, Egypt and Afghanistan and a crisis with North Korea and its nuclear weapon tests are also threatening the social order. This expression of fear worldwide is leading to a particular social change in society that is affecting the livelihood and the social identity of agents. Agents experience this fear and express it in their interactions in their everyday lives. Fear is reproducing the entire society but also fear is trapping society, thus generating lack of innovation, imagination and creativity. This dynamic and reinforcing movement is becoming the basis of the reproduction of society in modern times. Unless the individual is able to wake up, be more positive and focus single mindedly on reproducing and transforming recursive processes and the balance of society, social agents will continue to be trapped in stories of fear, in prisons where real happiness does not exist.
The reproduction of fears in Social Institutions
Fear has penetrated social institutions and their complex social forms such as roles. It is precisely the lack of standards, competences and coordination that are affecting the capabilities of institutions and individuals and is not allowing their transformation. There is not transformational change only developmental change reproducing society and power. In these spaces characterised by intense fear agents lack trust in themselves and as a result of that lack trust in others. Agents perceive and interpret the world in a different way through subconscious process of association of memories and emotions. Though their logical process works in a normal way the only problem is the liberation of specific memories associated to specific contexts. The agent is not able to free himself from these memories and need help from the external world to break free from these chains.
On the other hand. the specialization process in bureaucracies has also contributed to the intensification and reproduction of fragmentation processes. Not only culture and the agent is more disintegrated but also due to the lack of standards the individual has been transformed in a reactionary agent. In the modern world, the individual continues reacting and does not feel himself that belongs to a particular group. Thus, in their interactions is constantly using his primitive attitude of survival.
The intensification of fear is highly perceived almost on a daily basis for instance in modern public as well as private institutions . Public servants, contractors and other stakeholders in the areas of health, education, housing, who interact with users or clients of public services tend to express their fears in every organisational process. The result of these interactions generates the negation of the accessibility to goods or services such as medical treatments or medicines or enrolment of citizens in welfare programmes, the lack of design, implementation and monitoring of law, policies or remedies, exclusion of people from services, reduction of social benefits, the lack of public consultation processes, negative decisions of entitlements to benefits, lack of design of complaint mechanisms and accessibility to justice, thus generating an imminent lack of fulfillment of their human rights obligations under international law.
It is important to mention that not only is the lack of standards and competencies of individuals and structures that is generating social exclusion but also is the acceleration and intensification of fears that characterize these interactions. The combination of these processes triggers the lack of coordination and actions that in turn is generating dislocations in our societies. The intensification of fears has also a catastrophic consequence on the adaptation of individuals and structures to their surroundings since it blocks the innovation, creativity and imagination. The intensification of fears is causing that people do not trust in themselves and each other any longer destroying process of empathy, responsibility and accountability.
Therefore, a new system of political philosophy is urgently needed that instead of reproducing fears in an intense way might generate processes of trust and security that we have lost. We have to move from an attitude of generation of fears to the attitude of the generation of Social Responsibilities with each other in order to erradicate social exclusion. The shared social reponsibilities approach implies to promote security in ourselves at the same time that we recursively promote security and trust in others.